The plant Croton bonplandianum (Euphorbiaceae) is treat liver disorders, skin diseases including ring worm infection, to cure the swelling of body, bronchitis and asthma. The seeds are used for the treatment of jaundice, acute constipation, abdominal dropsy and internal abscesses. Since petroleum ether extract of C. bonplandianum revealed the presence of high content of (40 % w/w) fatty acids, hence the present study was carried out to evaluate the fatty acid composition of the petroleum ether extract from C. bonplandianum. The oily residue obtained from the column chromatography of petroleum ether extract was converted in the form of fatty acid methyl esters. The fatty acid methyl esters were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.2%), stearic acid (4.1%), oleic acid (6.6%), linoleic acid (16.8%), and linolenic acid (30.5%). Therefore the plant C. bonplandianum may be used as a rich source of essential fatty acids (linoleic acid and linolenic acid).