The surface layer of soil consisting of the mixture of mineral and organic matter reflects the nature and properties of the soil. X-ray Diffraction is the best tool for the identification of minerals present in soil. Red and Black soil samples were collected from different places of Wardha region. Analysis of these samples was carried out by X-Ray diffraction. Investigation indicates that red soil of Wardha region contains gibbsite, augite, anorthite, hematite, goethite, ilmentite, pyrite, quartz and black soil contains smectite, quartz, illite and kaolinite minerals.