Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) Commonly known as the dog-rose, is a variable climbing wild rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. The aim of this study is to review its phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological activity. This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, , Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016.totally, of 103 found articles,40 articles(42 in vitro and 5 animal studies) were included. The search terms were “Rose hip (Rosa canina L)”,“therapeutic”, “pharmacological”, Phytochemical .Various studies have shown that Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) Possess Antioxidant properties, Antibacterial and anti-cancer properties, Skin care properties, Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity, Renal disturbances ,Anticancer properties, Anti-inflammatory properties, Hydro alcohol properties, melanogenesis properties, Pharmacological activity ,Anti-obese properties, Neutrophil respiratory burst, Chryptoxanthin properties, Immunomodulatory properties, Osteoarthritis properties, Antidiabetic properties, Hepatoprotective, Antidiarrheal properties. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) is widely used for therapeutic and purposes that trigger its significant value. Various combinations and numerous medicinal properties of its extract, essential oils, its stems and leaves demand further and more studies about the other useful and unknown properties of this multipurpose plant.