In this study, the chemical compositions of steam-distilled essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma aromatica, as well as its antibacterial, anti-elastase, and anti-melanogenic activities, were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the essential oil were further analyzed by GC–MS and were found to be α-terpinolene (44.81%), 1,8-cineole (13.88%), and bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene- (11.76%). The antibacterial activities of C. aromatica oil (CAO) against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant skin pathogens were also examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values indicated that CAO has excellent antibacterial activities. The MIC of CAO against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant skin pathogens ranged from 70 to 400 μg/mL. In addition, the capacity of the CAO to inhibit elastase, a key enzyme known to be involved in skin wrinkle formation, was investigated. CAO contained moderate anti-elastase activity (IC50: 667.88 μg/mL). Furthermore, CAO reduced α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanin production in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells, indicating that it has anti-melanogenic effects. These findings demonstrate that CAO has great potential for use in promoting human skin health.