The chemical composition of essential oil, isolated from Thymelaea microphylla by hydrodistillation, was analysed by GC and GC/MS. A total 30 compounds representing 99.91% of the oil were identified in Dreaat population. The essential oil of T. microphylla is Characterized by a high rate of Tridecanal (31.24%), Nonanal<n-> (11.43%), Pentadecen 2-one (6Z) (7.93%) and the Citronellol (6.80%). Antioxidant capacity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The extracts essential oil showed a good antioxidant activity. Disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity on five different strains. The oil showed a significant effect against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.