The complex structure and existence of lignin hinder the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic biomass. This study was carried out to determine the properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch directly treated with steam without size reduction and acid/alkali treatments. The temperature and time of pre-treatment was varied and found that there was no significant difference in the production of glucose and xylose after Cellic CTec2 enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, pre-treatment neither changed in the moisture content nor the pH values in oil palm empty fruit bunch; however, a small reduction in pH was observed due to the generation of acetic acid, formic acid and levulinic acid. Thus, pre-treatment of the samples yields higher cellulose and lesser lignin content.
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