Preparation of (S)-1-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine is an important stereoselective step in the synthesis of many anticancer drugs like tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our study involved the synthesis of (S)-1-Boc-3-hydroxypiperidineusing Baker`s yeast, ketoreductase enzyme and microbial cells. The novel approach using Baker`s yeast yielded a costeffective, environment-friendly and enantioselective process. The ketoreductase enzyme provided a high chiral selectivity. The time course of the reaction and percent enzyme used was significantly reduced. Synthesis of (S)-1- Boc-3-hydroxypiperidine was also studied using microbial cells. The investigational studies done in this article will surely aid in improving the existing processes in many aspects as discussed above.