Der Pharma Chemica
Journal for Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Computational Chemistry

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Abstract

In vivo assessment of the antimalarial activity of Cassia Singueana and Cymbopogon Citrutus

Author(s): Lydia D. Ior, Noel N. Wannang, Clement A. Ior and Kennedy I. Amagon

The problem of increasing drug resistance in malaria therapy has made its treatment a major source of concern globally. This has necessitated the need to explore traditional medicines in the search for new/potential antimalarials for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy. Cassia singueana and Cymbopogon citrutus are widely spread in northern Nigeria and claimed to possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Cassia singueana bark was extracted with 50% ethanol,while the root and leaf of Cymbopogon citrutus were extracted with cold water. Phytochemical analysis and oral acute toxicity of the extracts, the Suppressive and Prophylactic antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice were evaluated. Pathological effects associated with malaria infections; pyrexia and weight loss or poor weight gain were similarly assessed. Results showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tanins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and steroids in Cassia singueana, while Cymbopogon citrutus showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The oral median lethal dose of both extracts was greater than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Cassia singueana at (400-600 mg/kg) exerted significant (P < 0.05) chemosuppressive effects between 72.7% to 90.5% and prophylactic effects between 79% to 83% against the Plasmodium berghei berghei. Similarly, Cymbopogon citrutus (200-800 mg/kg) produced a significant chemosuppressive effects between 20.83 - 80.56% for the leaf extract and 55.38-77.78% for the root extracts. This result showed that the plants have antiplasmodial property that can be explored for the management of malaria.


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