Polyenes are the long chain molecules derived from the polymerization of acetylene. These are linear conjugated oligomers, which posses alternate double bonds. The π - electrons are completely delocalized over the entire molecule which can be considered as a one dimensional box. We have applied particle in one dimensional box model to interpret the electronic spectra and to study other properties of few of the synthetic and natural polyenes. We have also made an effort to predict λmax and other properties of few of the hypothetical polyenes. Furthermore we have carried out a detailed study of conducting polymers. In addition, this paper describes an experiment in which Lycophene compound which is present in Tomato is used to model the particle in one dimensional box system. This idea may expose students to the chemistry of natural substances. The results of the quantum mechanical model indicates less error for small length polyenes where as error increases as the chain length increases.