Medicinal plants in Mauritania are much less known compared to those in the neighboring countries. This study shows that Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC is widespread in Mauritania and, in addition, Mauritanians use it for several medicinal purposes, such as relieving colds, flu and fever. Thus phytochemical study of its fruits has allowed us to reveal the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, ellagic acid, saponins, sterols, and terpenes. Furthermore it has suggested that the presences of these metabolites are linked to the antioxidant activity of this plant.