The enhanced adsorption abilities of Hydrogen peroxide treated red mud are investigated for the removal of an anionic dye, Naphthol green B dye from polluted water. Various physicochemical parameters like pH, sorbent concentration, agitation time, temperature and initial concentration of the dye are optimized for the maximum removal of the dye from simulated waters. The nature of adsorption is analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms and found that the adsorption is well described by Langmuir adsorption model with R2 : 0.9728; RL: 0.0634 suggesting the monolayer formation onto the surface of the adsorbent and further, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms reflect the ‘physisorption’ nature. On the analysis of kinetics of adsorption by Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Bangham’s pore diffusion and Elovich equations, it is revealed that adsorption follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The thermodynamic studies reveal that adsorption of the dye onto the surface of the adsorbent, is an exothermic process. The developed procedures are successfully applied to the samples collected from the effluents of textile industries.