For the first time, the relation between the variety of enzyme forms and different growing conditions of soybeans is studied. Data on the obtained electrophoretic spectra of catalase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, esterase and amylase of wild and cultivated soybean seeds were analyzed in detail and systematized. It was found that wild soybean has a high adaptive capacity and is characterized by high specific activity and a small number of studied enzyme forms. Low specific activity of soybean enzymes is compensated by a larger number of their forms, which increases the resistance of soybean in different growing conditions. Adaptive changes in specific activity and the number of enzyme forms under the influence of growing conditions cause changes in biometric and biochemical parameters of soybean of different phylogenetic origin. It is shown that the specific activity and multiple forms of catalases, peroxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and amylases of soybean seeds can be used as markers of its adaptation to different growing conditions.