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Metabolite Profiling of Fruit and Seed Extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus using Rp-Hplc- Esi-Q-Tof-Ms and Progenesis Qi

Der Pharma Chemica
Journal for Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Computational Chemistry

ISSN: 0975-413X

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Research Article - Der Pharma Chemica ( 2018) Volume 10, Issue 7

Metabolite Profiling of Fruit and Seed Extracts of Garcinia xanthochymus using Rp-Hplc- Esi-Q-Tof-Ms and Progenesis Qi

Nanjegowda SH1,2, Papanna MG1, Bharathi TR3, Raghu Ram Achar RR4,5, Prakash HS3, Swamy SN5,6 and Mallu P1*

1Department of Chemistry, JSS Science and Technology University, Mysuru-570 006, Karnataka, India

2Institute of Excellence, Vijnana Bhavana, Manasagangotri, Mysuru- 570 006, Karnataka, India

3Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore- 570006, Karnataka, India

4Department of Water and Health, Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, JSS University, Mysuru-570 015, Karnataka, India

5Department of Biotechnology, JSS Science and Technology University, Mysuru-570 006, Karnataka, India

6Department of Studies in Chemistry, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author:
Mallu P
Department of Chemistry
JSS Science and Technology University
Mysuru-570 006, Karnataka, India

Abstract

Natural products research is the most enormous field of research in terms of the amount of data and importance of information. Natural products discovery and metabolomics deals with a crucial mode of representation of the profile of biologically active metabolites. In this regard, the profiling of the chemical makeup of complex natural plant extracts necessarily requires employing sophisticated and advanced analytical methods like RP-HPLC–ESI-Q-TOF-MS as well as data mining and processing methods. The genus Garcinia (Clusiaceae) contains phenolic, flavonoids, xanthones, triterpenes, and benzophenones which have been reported for their significant biological properties. Due to its high content of secondary metabolites and its large domestic usage, we have developed a simple, rapid and precise method to characterize all the secondary metabolites using Reverse-Phase Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Electrospray Ionization Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (RP-HPLC–ESI-Q- TOF-MS) for the hydro-methanolic extract. A total of about 3443 secondary metabolites from the fruit and 3757 secondary metabolites from the seed were identified by the Progenesis-QI data analysis. Among these a total of 74 compounds from fruits and 86 polar compounds from seeds were manually identified using the mass error limit of < ± 5 ppm including the score less than 40. The unexplored bioactives belonging to the class of glycosides, flavones, xanthones, organic acids and other phenolic derivatives. Garcinia xanthochymus was found to contain significant number of diverse phytochemical components. These results indicate the profile of molecules present in G. xanthochymus and will be helpful for industries and researchers involved in isolation of their molecules of interest.

Keywords

Garcinia xanthochymus, RP-HPLC –ESI-Q-TOF-MS, Glycosides, Flavones, Xanthones.

Introduction

Garcinia xanthochymus has attracted the interest of researchers because of its very rich constituents like phenolics, xanthones, antioxidantents, flavonoids and are well known as secondary metabolites [1]. Because of increased consumption and health benefits, the identification of secondary metabolites is equally important. The genus Garcinia (Clusiaceae) is large family of shrubs or trees which is mainly distributed in Asia, Africa, and Polynesia [2]. In India, the genus is represented by about 30 species. Several phenolic, flavonoids, xanthones, triterpenes and benzophenones have been reported from this genus which have significant biological properties such as antibacterial [3-5], antioxidant [6], antiviral [7,8] and anticancer activities [9,10].

G. xanthochymus, commonly well known as gamboges, is a tree endemic to India growing 8-10 m in height [10,11]. The trees have dark green leaves and bear yellow fruits 6-7 cm in diameter with juicy, acidic, yellow pulp containing two seeds [11]. Traditionally, fruits of this plant are used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery [12]. Other important uses of this fruit are in the preparation of jams, preserves and vinegar, and also as a yellow fabric dye [13]. Previous phytochemical analysis of the leaves, seeds, and fruits of G. xanthochymus revealed the presence of two xanthochymol, benzophenones and isoxanthochymol, biflavonoids including fukugiside, fukugetin and volkensiflavone, the flavonoid vitexin, and a number of triterpenes, xanthones and lipids [11,14,15]. Biological activities, mainly like analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic have been reported for previously isolated benzophenones and biflavonoids [14-19].

Characterization of components using an advanced and powerful technique becomes crucial to have an all-inclusive overview on the metabolite profile. Analytical strategies in this regard which can analyze and profile the metabolites of the natural plant extracts have strong potential [20]. Advances in chromatographic techniques including LC-MS, GC-MS, and LC- NMR as well as data mining and processing methods has been instrumental in the field of natural product research. These tools collectively provide the development of metabolomics [20,21]. The present work focused on the metabolite profiling of G. xanthochymus using a newly developed comprehensive and reliable method by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Electrospray Ionization Quadropole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-Q-TOF-MS). Furthermore, the obtained results were subjected to Waters Progenesis QI Data analysis software for the identification of metabolites based on the high resolution mass data and isotope distribution of the compounds.

Material and Methods

Plant material and chemicals

G. xanthochymus was collected from different parts of Western Ghats, South-West Karnataka, India. The collected fruits cleansed with distilled water and dried. The seeds were removed from the fresh fruit using knife. The fresh fruit and the seeds were frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen fruits and seeds were grounded into powder using pestle and mortar. The powder was collected in a polythene bag and stored at -20°C until the use.

Formic Acid AR grade, HPLC grade Methanol and Acetonitrile (Merck, USA) were used as mobile phase solvent. Deionized water was purified by a reverse osmosis and ion exchange method (Milli-Q system, USA).

Preparation of extracts

The stored powder which served as the starting material was weighed (0.5 g) and subjected for extraction according to the previous methods [22]. Briefly, powder was mixed with 16 ml of 80: 20 (v/v) methanol/H2O and sonicated for 30 min at room temperature. Then, the mixture was centrifuged for 15 min at 4000 rpm and the supernatant was decanted into a round bottom flask. Thereafter, the solvent was evaporated by using a rotary evaporator under vacuum at 40ºC and the dry residue was resolved in 0.5 ml of 80: 20 (v/v) methanol/H2O. Finally, the extract was filtered through a 0.2 μm syringe filter and stored at −20ºC till analysis.

Chromatographic system and conditions

Analysis of metabolites of G. xanthochymus fruit and seed was done by the Waters ACQUITY UPLC (Waters corp., MS) quaternary pump equipped with column thermostat and the auto sampler. The HPLC column Phenomenex Gemini (100 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 μm, 110 Å USA) was set at 40°C, auto sampler was at 10°C and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The mobile phase consisted of (A) 0.1% formic acid in water and (B) 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The eluting conditions were used as follows: 0 min, 0% B; 10 min, 10% B; 15 min, 30% B; 30 min, 55% B; 40 min, 65% B; 50 min, 90% B; 56 min, 90%; 58 min, 0%; 65 min, 0%.

ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis conditions

The UPLC system was connected to Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight (Synpat G2, Waters corp., USA) which is an orthogonally accelerated Q-TOF mass spectrometer, furnished with electrospray ionization source (ESI). Parameters for analysis were set using positive mode and the spectral range was set to 100-1500 m/z. The MS was optimized with following parameters: Polarity, ES+ ; Analyzer, High Resolution Mode; Capillary (1.8 kV), Source Temperature (150°C), Sampling Cone 40, Extraction Cone 4.0, Desolvation Temperature (200°C), Desolvation Gas Flow (500 l/H), Trap Collision Energy 4.0 and Nitrogen was used as carrier gas and Nitrogen-Argon were used as collision gas. The MS data was processed using Mass Lynx VMassLynx SCN781 software. The characterization of metabolites was done using Waters Progenesis QI Data analysis software based on the accurate mass and isotope distribution. Principal Component Analysis was performed to assess the interrelationship between the extract of fruit and seed.

Results and Discussions

Selection of the compounds from fruit and seeds

Tables 1 and 2 provides the list of the tentatively selected compounds of fruit and seed extract of G. xanthochymus. About 3443 compounds were found from the fruit and about 3757 compounds from the seed. The tentative list was constructed based on the deconvolution of UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS using the positive ionization mode and the isotope distribution. Tentatively, 74 out of 3443 from fruit and 86 out of 3757 from seeds were manually selected based on the least mass error (> ± 5ppm) and p-value (score less than 50). The compounds were summarized along peak number, retention time, observed m/z, empirical formula, mass error, and mSigma score.

Peak No. Rt (min) m/z Formula Mass Error (ppm) mSigma Score Proposed compound
1 1.69 290.8476 C4Cl6 4 22.2 Hexachlorobutadiene
2 1.79 248.1131 C10H17NO6 1 39.6 Linamarin
3 2 184.0731 C10H11NO -0.9 38.4 Tryptophol
4 2.08 385.1341 C7H12O6 -0.4 39.3 D-(-)-Quinic acid
5 2.13 319.1018 C17H19ClN2S -0.6 31.7 Chlorpromazine
6 2.15 325.1131 C12H22O11 0.6 39.3 Lactose
7 2.18 292.1029 C11H19NO9 0.6 37.1 N-Acetylneuraminic acid
8 2.32 325.1132 C12H22O11 0.7 39 beta-Gentiobiose
9 2.37 301.0554 C16H13ClN2S -1.3 32.5 sulazepam
10 4.14 193.0342 C6H8O7 -0.3 39.4 L-threo-Hexo-2,3-diulosonic acid
11 7.58 109.0282 C6H6O3 -1.9 38.2 Maltol
12 10.96 163.0382 C5H11NO4P+ -2.7 38 [(3S)-3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl](hydroxymethyl)oxophosphon ium
13 12.82 323.0367 C12H19O2PS3 2.8 34.7 Merdafos
14 13.21 147.0435 C9H8O3 -3.1 37.3 Cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxy-, cis-
15 14.59 377.1449 C20H24ClN2O S 0.2 33.5 N-(2-((3-(Dimethylamino)propyl)thio)phenyl)-3- phenyl-2-propenamide Monohydrochloride
16 15.02 301.1793 C19H26O4 -1.6 39.3 Ubiquinone 2
17 15.02 347.1849 C20H28O6 -1.1 39.2 (3aR,4S,7aR)-6-(Hydroxymethyl)-5-[(2S)-5- hydroxy-2-pentanyl]-3-methylene-2-oxo-2,3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl (2Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoate
18 15.19 331.1896 C20H28O5 -2.3 38.8 gibberellin A53
19 15.19 285.1842 C19H26O3 -2.4 38.4 Formestane
20 15.93 315.1941 C20H28O4 -4.3 36.7 (1alpha,4aalpha,4bbeta,10beta)-1,4a-Dimethyl-8-methylenegibbane-1,10- dicarboxylic acid
21 16.59 285.184 C19H26O3 -3 36.4 Formestane
22 16.91 437.0701 C13H19N4O12 P -0.6 38.8 Succino-AICAR
23 17.42 363.1789 C16H22N6O4 2 38.3 Protirelin
24 17.66 719.1552 C36H30O16 -2.1 36.4 (+-)-Fukugiside
25 17.68 557.1063 C25H26O12 1.4 33 (6aR,11aR)-9-Methoxy-6a,11a-dihydro-6H- [1]benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-3-yl 6-O- (carboxyacetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
26 18.74 261.0382 C13H8O6 -4.3 38.4 1,2,6,8-Tetrahydroxyxanthone
27 19.62 285.1839 C19H26O3 -3.4 37.3 Formestane
28 19.91 274.2732 C16H35NO2 -3.1 38.6 (2S,3R)-2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol
29 20.96 555.0905 C25H24O12 1.1 37.9 Cynarine
30 21.13 423.0692 C14H20N6O5S -0.7 38.2 S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine
31 22.75 539.0947 C30H18O10 -4.9 38.3 Amentoflavone
32 22.87 245.0434 C13H10O6 -4.1 38.2 Laguncurin
33 23.2 541.1113 C15H10O5 -3.1 36.2 Emodin
34 24.17 539.0955 C30H18O10 -3.3 38.7 amentoflavone
35 25.17 485.2161 C25H33NaO8 3.1 34.2 Corlan
36 26.35 229.0484 C13H10O5 -4.5 38.5 Isopimpinellin
37 27.62 581.2735 C24H40N2O10 -0.6 37.9 Terbutaline sulfate
38 28.89 329.1004 C14H18N4O3 -2.1 38.8 Trimethoprim
39 29.07 273.0381 C10H13ClN2O 1.5 34.6 Metoxuran
40 29.28 329.1001 C14H18N4O3 -3.4 38.7 Benomyl
41 29.89 313.1043 C14H12N6O3 -0.1 37.9 p-[(2-Amino-4-hydroxy-6- pteridylmethyl)amino]benzoic Acid
42 30.28 441.259 C25H38O5 -4.6 37.7 (+)-Simvastatin
43 30.58 585.303 C33H44O9 -4.9 36.8 (6Z)-4,9,11-Triacetoxy-3a-hydroxy- 2,5,8,8,12-pentamethyl- 2,3,3a,4,5,8,9,10,11,13a-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[12]annulen-1-yl benzoate
44 30.82 329.0995 C16H18O6 -0.3 38 (2S)-7-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-(2-hydroxy-2- propanyl)-4-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-5H- furo[3,2-g]chromen-5-one
45 32.63 343.1158 C17H19NaO6 1.8 38.8 Mycophenolate sodium
46 33.63 557.1049 C25H26O12 -1.4 38.2 (6aR,11aR)-9-Methoxy-6a,11a-dihydro-6H-[1]benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-3-yl 6-O- (carboxyacetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside
47 38.62 549.2812 C28H40N2O9 0.9 36.8 3-[(3-Formamido-2-hydroxybenzoyl)amino]- 8-hexyl-2,6-dimethyl-4,9-dioxo-1,5- dioxonan-7-yl 3-methylbutanoate
48 39.68 451.2086 C16H31N6O7P 4.7 37.5 Valyl-N-[(1S,2Z)-1-carboxy-4-phosphono-2- buten-1-yl]-L-argininamide
49 39.75 551.2962 C27H38N2O8 -0.2 35.7 NPAB
50 40.44 637.3689 C33H44N6O5 -3.2 37 N1-{(1S,2R)-1-Benzyl-3-[[(tert-butylamino)carbonyl](isobutyl)amino]-2- hydroxypropyl}-N2-(quinolin-2-ylcarbonyl)- L-aspartamide
51 42.78 467.2398 C26H36O6 -1.3 38.5 Prednival
52 42.99 447.2708 C24H40O5 -3.6 37.1 3a,6a,7a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oic acid
53 44.48 411.177 C22H28O6 -2.2 39.1 Surinamensin
54 45.13 639.324 C36H50O7 -4.8 36.1 1-O-[(2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E)-2,6,10,15,19,23-Hexamethyl- 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,22-tetracosadecaenoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranose
55 45.43 619.3585 C32H46N2O8 -0.8 39 [(1alpha,6beta,14alpha,16beta)-20-Ethyl-7,8- dihydroxy-1,6,14,16-tetramethoxyaconitan-4- yl]methyl aminobenzoate
56 46.31 601.3478 C31H45NO8 -0.9 36.3 (1S,7aR)-Hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1- ylmethyl 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)benzoate
57 46.58 604.3663 C38H50O6 -4.8 33.1 Cycloxanthochymol
58 47.06 583.3371 C31H43NO7 -1.3 36.8 (1S,3S,4S,5S,7S,9S,14S,15R,16S,17R)-3,4,7-Trihydroxy-9,11-dimethyl-19-methylene-11- azahexacyclo[12.3.2.0~1,13~.0~4,9~.0~5,12~.0~5,17~]nonadecane-15,16-diyl (2E,2'E)bis(2-methyl-2-butenoate)
59 47.47 409.161 C20H28O6 3.3 38.7 (3aR,6aS,7R,8R,10R,10aR,10bS)-3a,7,8,10a-Tetrahydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-8- isopropenyl-2,10-dimethyl- 4,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b-octahydrobenzo[e]azulen-3(3aH)-one
60 47.48 465.2233 C17H33N6O7P 2.6 36 Isoleucyl-N-[(1S,2Z)-1-carboxy-4- phosphono-2-buten-1-yl]-L-argininamide
61 47.68 601.348 C36H50O6 -3.4 37.8 (11beta)-11,17-Dihydroxy-3,20-dioxopregna- 1,4-dien-21-yl (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienoate
62 47.96 523.2988 C21H38N4O9 2.9 38.7 (6R)-5-Acetamido-2,6-anhydro-4- carbamimidamido-3,4,5-trideoxy-6-[(1R,2R)- 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-3-(octanoyloxy)propyl]-L-threo-hex-2-enonic acid hydrate (1:1)
63 48.24 657.3352 C34H50Cl2N4O3 4.7 29.1 N-(2,6-Dimethylphenyl)-2-(tetrahydro-1H- pyrrolizin-7a(5H)-yl)acetamide hydrochloride hydrate (2:2:1)
64 48.63 625.3447 C31H55O9P -4.8 36.8 1-O-(Hydroxy{[(6Z,10E,14E)-3,7,11,15,19-pentamethyl-6,10,14,18-icosatetraen-1- yl]oxy}phosphoryl)-beta-D-glucopyranose
65 48.8 641.3333 C18H24O5 2 36.3 b-Zearalenol
66 49.71 991.6204 C55H92O11P2 1.7 37.7 1-O- [{[(2Z,6Z,10Z,14Z,18Z,22Z,26Z,30Z,34E)- 3,7,11,15,19,23,27,31,35,39-Decamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22,26,30,34,38-tetracontadecaen-1- yl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-5-O- phosphono-beta-D-ribofuranose
67 49.99 465.2231 C17H33N6O7P 2 37.7 Isoleucyl-N-[(1S,2Z)-1-carboxy-4-phosphono-2-buten-1-yl]-L-argininamide
68 51.1 329.1718 C15H26N2O7 3.2 38.6 (2R,4aS,5aR,6S,7S,8R,9S,9aR,10aS)-4-Methoxy-2-methyl-6,8-bis(methylamino)- 5a,6,7,8,9,9a-hexahydro-2H-pyrano[2,3- b][1,4]benzodioxine-4a,7,9(10aH)-triol
69 51.86 413.2641 C22H39NaO4 0.7 38 Sodium (2E)-4-(octadecyloxy)-4-oxo-2-butenoate
70 52.05 507.3039 C21H38N4O8 3 38.5 N-[(2S,3R)-3-Amino-2-hydroxy-5-methylhexanoyl]-L-valyl-L-valyl-L-aspartic acid
71 52.71 603.3614 C38H50O6 1.9 16 Guttiferone E/Guttiferone H
72 53.29 603.3506 C38H50O6 4.8 32 Xanthochymol
73 54.55 413.2624 C22H39NaO4 -3.7 38.8 Sodium (2E)-4-(octadecyloxy)-4-oxo-2-butenoate
74 55.51 587.3686 C33H56O6 -4.1 36.9 (3beta)-Cholest-5-en-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside

Table 1: Proposed secondary metabolites obtained from fruit extract using UPLC-ESI-Q- TOF-MS and Progenesisi-QI

Peak No. Rt (min) m/z Formula Mass Error (ppm) mSigma Score Proposed compounds
1 1.52 151.0305 C9H9ClO -2.5 35.6 Chlorindanol
2 1.79 248.1052 C11H17ClNO3 3.9 34 Pressomin
3 2.08 421.1417 C20H24N2O6S -1.7 37.3 10-Oxo-8-azatricyclo[5.3.1.0~3,8~]undec-5-yl 1H-indole-3-carboxylate methanesulfonate (1:1)
4 2.32 343.1129 C8H19N6O7P 2.3 38.4 (1S,2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-2,4-Dicarbamimidamido-3,5,6- trihydroxycyclohexyl dihydrogen phosphate
5 4.06 210.0547 C13H9NO3 -1.3 36.9 2-Nitro-9H-fluoren-9-ol
6 6.92 208.0538 C9H9N3OS -0.4 38.3 Benzthiazuron
7 9.3 208.0541 C9H9N3OS 1 36.8 Benzthiazuron
8 10.39 163.0339 C5H10O3 -2 38.8 5-Hydroxypentanoic acid
9 13.21 339.0968 C19H18O3 0.2 39.1 2-Butyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-benzofuran
10 13.75 163.0338 C5H10O3 -3.4 38.7 5-Hydroxypentanoic acid
11 14.5 207.0586 C10H10N2OS -0.2 36.8 N-Hydroxy-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanethioamide
12 14.6 377.1338 C19H24O5 0.7 39.4 (1R,2R,5R,8R,9S,10R,13R)-13-Hydroxy-11-methyl-6-methylene-16-oxo-15-oxapentacyclo[9.3.2.1~5,8~.0~1,10~.0~2,8~]h eptadecane-9-carboxylic acid
13 15.02 147.0394 C4H6N2O4 -4.2 38.5 3-(Carbamoylamino)-3-oxopropanoic acid
14 15.19 331.1799 C22H24N2O2 -1.7 38.1 Acrivastine
15 15.55 415.1443 C14H9NO 0.4 39.2 2H-Dibenzo[b,f]azepin-2-one
16 15.8 331.18 C22H24N2O2 -1.3 38.1 Acrivastine
17 15.92 233.11 C13H16N2S 0.7 38 Rezatomidine
18 15.95 331.1797 C22H24N2O2 -2.2 38 Acrivastine
19 16.07 433.0989 C19H20N2O7 1.7 38.9 Aranidipine
20 16.41 261.0311 C15H10O2 -0.7 36.8 Isoflavone
21 16.69 701.4036 C22H26N2O2 -3.7 36.7 Vinpocetine
22 16.93 351.2055 C22H28N2O3 -3.3 37 Hirsutine
23 17.1 529.175 C24H32O11S 2.4 36.8 (17-beta)-3-(Sulfooxy)estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17- yl beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid
24 17.64 719.1376 C36H30O16 0.9 15.7 (+-)-Fukugiside
25 17.93 535.2357 C20H40N4O10 -3.9 37.4 Geneticin
26 18.15 543.1903 C28H30N6OS -2.1 36.4 Masitinib
27 18.15 397.1366 C16H22N4O9 3 38.2 (3R)-3-[(3R,5S)-7-Oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]hept-3-yl]seryl-(3S)-3- [(3R,5S)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]hept-3-yl]serine
28 18.41 397.1001 C18H18N2O7 -1.5 35.7 (2S)-4-[(E)-2-{[(1S)-1-Carboxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amino}vinyl]-2,3- dihydro-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid
29 18.71 235.0892 C11H10N2S -3.6 37.5 .alpha.-Naphthylthiourea
30 18.98 533.0761 C14H26N4O11P2 -4.9 37.4 Citicoline
31 19.1 541.0962 C22H24ClN2O9 0.4 34.4 Tetran
32 19.52 533.0757 C13H11ClO4 -1.3 34.3 3-[5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-furyl]-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
33 19.98 411.1158 C19H20N2O7 -1.2 37.9 Aranidipine
34 20.35 277.1347 C18H18N2O2 3.9 37.6 2-[3-Ethyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]phenol
35 21.05 557.0904 C24H22O14 0.4 38.1 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl 6-O-(carboxyacetyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside
36 22.94 543.1115 C23H24N6O7S2 0 36.7 sulfamazone
37 24.14 539.0804 C30H18O10 0.4 39 Amentoflavone
38 24.61 549.3257 C26H44O10 -2.4 37.5 3-O-(alpha-L-olivosyl)oleandolide
39 24.9 549.3255 C26H44O10 -2.9 37.3 3-O-(alpha-L-olivosyl)oleandolide
40 26.36 527.0325 C12H26O16P2 -0.5 36.7 1-O-[(3-{[(2,3-Dihydroxypropoxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}-2-hydroxypropoxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]- alpha-D-glucopyranose
41 27.64 457.24 C25H38ClN2O 4.2 33.8 Bunamidine hydrochloride
42 28.23 417.2489 C22H32N4O4 -0.6 39.2 Tonapofylline
43 29.64 587.3004 C35H40N4O3 4.4 33.3 Methyl (2alpha)-14-[(3aR,6R)-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-indolo[3,2,1- de][1,5]naphthyridin-6-yl]-13- hydroxyibogamine-18-carboxylate
44 30.3 859.5052 C43H70O15 0.3 38.9 (3beta,6alpha,9beta,16beta,20R,24S)-3-[(2-O- Acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)oxy]-16,25- dihydroxy-20,24-epoxy-9,19-cyclolanostan-6-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside
45 32.02 825.4777 C38H68N2O13S -0.1 38 (3R,4S,5S,6R,7R,9R,11R,12R,13S,14R)-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,6R)-4-(Dimethylamino)-3- hydroxy-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2- yl]oxy}-14-ethyl-7,12,13-trihydroxy-4-{[(2R,4R,5S,6S)-5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4,6- dimethyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]oxy}-3,5,7,9,11,13- hexamethyloxacyclotetradecane-2,10-dione thiocyanate (1:1)
46 32.85 579.0715 C24H22O14 -1.2 38.5 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl 6-O-(carboxyacetyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside
47 33.08 547.3096 C35H40N4O3 4.9 32.2 Methyl (2alpha)-14-[(3aR,6R)-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-indolo[3,2,1-de][1,5]naphthyridin-6-yl]-13- hydroxyibogamine-18-carboxylate
48 35.46 423.2399 C22H27N3O3 2.2 38.7 tryprostatin A
49 36 553.2955 C33H43FO7 -0.8 33.5 Dexamethasone cipecilate
50 36.96 419.2656 C22H36N4O5 0.7 38.4 Cipemastat
51 37.11 401.27 C13H16N2 0 38.9 2-[(1S)-1-(2,3-Dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole
52 37.92 541.2951 C28H40Cl2N2O2 -1.4 28.5 Biallylamicoldihydrochlorde
53 38.55 417.2501 C22H34N4O5 1.1 35.1 (3S)-3-[({(3R)-1-[3-(4-Piperidinyl)propanoyl]- 3-piperidinyl}carbonyl)amino]-3-(3-pyridinyl)propanoic acid hydrate (1:1)
54 39.29 441.2493 C12H16N2O2 -0.8 37.1 N~2~-Acetyl-N,N-dimethyl-N~2~-phenylglycinamide
55 39.77 433.2446 C20H29N3O5 0.1 39.5 N-[1-(1-Piperidinyl)-2-propanyl]-N-(2- pyridinyl)propanamide (2E)-2-butenedioate (1:1)
56 39.83 541.0957 C24H22O13 0.9 38.4 5-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl 6-O-(carboxyacetyl)-beta-D- glucopyranoside
57 40.72 533.3301 C21H41N5O8 1.6 38.2 (1R,2S,3S,4R,6S)-4,6-Diamino-3-{[3-deoxy-4-C-methyl-3-(methylamino)-beta-L- arabinopyranosyl]oxy}-2-hydroxycyclohexyl 2-acetamido-6-amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-alpha-D-erythro-hexopyranoside
58 41.32 431.2652 C23H36N4O5 -0.3 38.7 N-Acetylleucylleucyltyrosinamide
59 41.71 347.1742 C22H22N2O2 -1.9 38.9 Cintazone
60 41.71 523.2864 C26H44O9 -1.5 39 Mupirocin
61 42.9 347.1736 C22H24N2O3 -4.9 38.2 4-(4,4-Dimethyl-3-oxopentyl)-1,2-diphenyl-3,5-pyrazolidinedione
62 42.93 413.2547 C22H36O7 4 37.2 (14R)-3beta,5,6beta,10,16-pentahydroxygrayanotoxan-14-yl acetate
63 43.6 483.2946 C26H42O8 -1.3 39.3 (4R,5R,6R,6aS,9S,9aE,10aR)-5-Hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-3-isopropyl-6,10a-dimethyl- 1,2,4,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10a-decahydrodicyclopenta[a,d][8]annulen-4-yl alpha-D-glucopyranoside
64 44.32 537.3007 C18H20O2 1.4 37.3 Equilin
65 45.09 453.2461 C27H32O6 3.1 38.8 Gambogenone
66 45.18 524.2886 C24H47NO10S -0.2 35.9 (2S,3R,4E)-2-Amino-3-hydroxy-4-octadecen-1-yl 6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranoside
67 46.5 539.3157 C27H42N2O5S 1.6 37.7 Ixabepilone
68 47.92 523.2855 C26H44O9 -4.5 37.6 Mupirocin
69 48.24 417.25 C22H32N4O4 0.8 33.2 Tonapofylline
70 48.38 401.2555 C23H30NO3+ 0 38.2 N-Isopropyl-N-methyl-N-{2-[(9H-xanthen-9-ylcarbonyl)oxy]ethyl}-2-propanaminium
71 48.56 555.3108 C26H43NO7S 1.9 38.3 N-[(3alpha,5beta)-24-Oxo-3-(sulfooxy)cholan-24-yl]glycine
72 48.88 533.2735 C29H40O9 -1.8 36.2 (1R,3aS,3bR,5aS,6aR,7aS,9R,11R,11aS,12aR,13aR,13bS,15aR)-3a,11,11a-Trihydroxy- 9,15a-dimethyl-1-(5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-3- furanyl)icosahydro-7aH,13aH- cyclopenta[7,8]phenanthro[2,3-b]pyrano[3,2- e][1,4]dioxin e-13a-carbaldehyde
73 49.06 535.2357 C33H42O6 -3.9 37.4 Aristophenone A
73 48.92 601.3328 C25H46N8O10 3.9 35.1 (2S)-2-({[(2S)-3-[(4R)-2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-4-yl]-1-{[(1S,2S,3R,4S,5S,6S)-4-{[(2R,3S,5S,6R)-3,5-diamino-6-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]oxy}-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxycyclohexyl]amino}-1- oxo-2-propanyl]carbamoyl}amino)-4-methylpentanoic acid
74 49.09 603.3629 C31H55O9P -4.6 37.3 1-O-(Hydroxy{[(6Z,10E,14E)-3,7,11,15,19-pentamethyl-6,10,14,18-icosatetraen-1-yl]oxy}phosphoryl)-beta-D-mannopyranose
75 49.59 277.1329 C18H16N2O 2.3 38.4 Sudan II
76 49.94 359.2098 C19H32N2O2 1 38.9 Camylofin
77 49.94 415.2707 C22H38O7 4.1 37.4 Quicifal
78 50.37 537.3007 C18H20O2 1.4 30.4 1-Ethyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-5-indanol
79 51.76 599.375 C40H48N4O2 0.8 36.4 Methyl (3beta,5alpha,19E)-3-[(2alpha)-ibogamin-13-yl]vobasan-17g-oate
80 52.03 273.1396 C19H16N2 3.6 38.1 sempervirene
81 52.7 603.3614 C38H50O6 0.8 38.5 isoxanthochymol
82 53.18 923.5005 C48H76O18 0.7 36.1 Colubrin
83 53.25 345.1947 C23H26N2O2 -4 37.8 Benzetimide
84 53.79 277.134 C18H16N2O 1.8 38.8 Sudan II

Table 2: Proposed secondary metabolites obtained from seed extract using UPLC-ESI-Q- TOF-MS and Progenesisi-QI

Characterization of the compounds using MS data in comparison with the database

The compounds detected were tentatively characterised by means of MS data, together with the interpretation of the observed m/z spectra in comparison with those found in the literature. The knowledge of previously studied phytochemicals from the same genus or same plant has also been employed in sorting the list. Databases such as Pubchem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), ChemSpider (http://www.chemspider.com) and SciFinder Scholar (https://www.scifinder.cas.org) were employed during the identification and cross verification of the compounds. The initial molecules in the fruit extract between peak 1-20 appeared on the list were that of glycosides, organic acids, aromatic alcohols and sugar derivatives. Some of these molecules viz., Linamarin, Chlorpromazine, Sulazepam, have been reported for their biological properties [23,24]. The next set of molecules between the peak 21-40 include (+-)-Fukugiside, 1,2,6,8-Tetrahydroxyxanthone, Amentoflavone which have been extensively been studied in the Garcinia species [11,25]. The results are helpful for rapid purification of these components using the parameters applied during the UPLC. Other than the previously identified molecules the peaks 21-40 also included glucopyranosides, flavones and some organic acids. Peaks 71 and 72 were proposed to be that of the wellknown signature molecules of G. xanthochymus which are Guttiferone E/Guttiferone H and Xanthochymol respectively [11,14]. The peaks of seeds contained unidentified class of molecules of some benzofurans, glucopyranosides, and substituted pentanoic acids; and a huge array of characterized molecules viz., Acrivastine, Aranidipine, Isoflavone, Vinpocetine, Hirsutine, Geneticin, Citicoline having biological activities were proposed to be the constituents based on the results obtained [26,27]. The previously identified molecules of the Garcinia species include (+-)-Fukugiside, Amentoflavone, Gambogenone, Aristophenone A, Isoxanthochymol at peaks 24, 37, 65, 73, 81 were found and conferred to be the signature molecules [11,25,28]. Table 3 includes the characterized molecules with specific biological activities from the fruits and seeds of G. xanthochymus which have been extensively been studied. Base peak chromatograms (Figures 1 and 2) of the fruit and seed extracts of G. xanthochymus, respectively shows the array of metabolites present in the extracts. The biplot generated by principal component analysis (Figures 3 and 4) illustrates the identical nature of the compounds between fruit and seed extracts. The overall triplicate data can be visually assessed by the PCA.

S. No. Plant Part Molecule Structure Activities
1 Seed Gambogenone (PubChem CID:72763153) image Antioxidant [11]
2 Fruit Guttiferone H (PubChem CID:72783686) image Antioxidant [11] (Baggett et al., 2005)
3 Fruit Aristophenone A (PubChem CID:10907594) image Anticancer, Antioxidant [7,11]
4 Fruit and seed Amentoflavone (PubChem CID:5281600) image Anticancer, Antioxidant [11,14]
5 Fruit Cycloxanthochymol (PubChem CID:23244759) image Antibacterial (Iinuma et al., 1996)
6 Seed (+-)-Fukugiside (PubChem CID:11968471) image Anti-Helicobacter pylori (Nontakham et al., 2014)
7 Fruit Xanthochymol (PubChem CID:9938674) image Anticancer (Baggett et al., 2005)

Table 3: Some of the characterized bioactives of Garcinia xanthochymus

derpharmachemica-peak-chromatogram

Figure 1: Total Ion Current (TIC) Base peak chromatogram (BPC) of Garcinia xanthochymus fruit extract by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, Retention time of 0-30 min (A), Retention time of 30- 60 min (B)

derpharmachemica-Ion-Current

Figure 2: Total Ion Current (TIC) Base peak chromatogram (BPC) of Garcinia xanthochymus seed extract by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, Retention time of 0-30 min (A), Retention time of 30- 60 min (B)

derpharmachemica-seed-extracts

Figure 3: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Methanolic extract of Garcinia xanthochymus fruit (A) and its seed (B) illustrating the identical nature of the compounds between fruit and seed extracts

derpharmachemica-fruit-extract

Figure 4: Ion Intensity map of seed and fruit extract of Garcinia xanthochymus

Conclusion

In the present study, the novel UPLC with ESI–QTOF–MS method adopted has been a useful analytical technique for deconvolution and characterization of phytochemical compounds of G. xanthochymus fruits and seeds. Analysis by Waters Progenesis QI Data analysis software based on the accurate mass and isotope distribution resulted in identification of a wide array of phytochemicals in the extracts. The molecules were tentatively identified by the method proposed. Other than the well known molecules of Garcinia species and the native characterized molecules of G. xanthochymus, the bioactive molecules proposed were glycosides, organic acids, aromatic alcohols, sugar derivatives, benzofurans, glucopyranosides, and substituted pentanoic acids. The data reflects the presence of an array of molecules with biological importance. The method is useful for rapid purification of the molecules of interest with the details of specified parameters. The profile of metabolites stands as a signature of composition of fruits and seeds of G. xanthochymus.

Acknowledgement

Thanks to Institution of excellence, Vijnana Bhanvan, University of Mysore, Mysuru for providing the LCMS-QTOF facility. Special thanks to Mr. Rajeev, Application Specialist, Waters India, Bangalore and Dr. Paul N Goulding, Business Development Manager, Asia, Africa and Australasia for providing the Progenesis QI and their valuable suggestions for this work.

References

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