Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Clausena anisata leaf and Stem Extracts and Quantitative and Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of their ContentsAuthor(s): Kumatia EK*, Ayertey F, Appiah AA and Ocloo A
Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant use to treat diseases including inflammatory, pain and oxidative stress conditions. Nonetheless, these activities have not been evaluated for its stem. This study aimed to evaluate and compared analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of ethanol extracts of leaf (CLE) and stem (CSE) of C. anisata. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities were assessed by carrageenan induced paw edema and DPPH free radical scavenging assays respectively. Hot plate and writhing assays were used to test the analgesic activity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified using UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods. CLE and CSE produced (p<0.05) dose-depended anti-inflammatory activity (76.35-85.83%) comparable to that of indomethacin (78.26%) and (p< 0.05) analgesic activity in the writhing assay. The extracts also produce (p<0.0001) overall analgesic activity in the hot plate assay comparable to tramadol, although, their activities were short lived. EC50 values obtained in the anti-oxidant activity showed that ascorbic acid (standard) was 86 and 74 times potent than CLE and CSE respectively. Total flavonoids and phenolics obtained per 100 mg of CLE or CSE were 2.46 ± 0.08 and 3.93 ± 0.122 mg QE (Quercetin Equivalent) respectively and 6.69 ± 0.54 and 7.45 ± 0.64 mg GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent) respectively. Flavonoids and phenolic contents of CSE were higher than CLE. This may partly explain where CSE was more active than CLE in all the assays. These results show that CLE and CSE possessed significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and weak anti-oxidant activity.