Some diseases that afflict humans can be cured or their effect on mortality date can be delayed. There are many diseases which lead to early deaths in spite of all the interventions and medications that modern medicines can provide. Although there is no irrefutable evidence for them, there are widely held views that diseases such as cancer may be caused by chemicals which enter the human body by various routes. Among the suspected sources, foods (both natural and synthetic) may be the carrier of carcinogens or potential carcinogens. Another source which may be implicated is environmental pollution involving air, water and earth. Whatever the sources of the disease-causing agents, it is alarming that an increasing number of humans are dying on account of being stricken with cancer or tuberculosis. Both of these diseases have debilitating effects on the persons who contract them. In spite of the fact that there are therapies available for the treatment of these afflictions, there is still much scope for development and/or discovery of newer medicines/medications/formulations which may cure or provide greater alleviation in the pain and suffering inflicted by these diseases. In terms of formulations, much research has been expended on the use of ionic liquids as solvents, and as components which can act against malignant cells. In the light of the above considerations, this paper will undertake a review of the research involving the medicinal applications of ionic liquids in the treatment of cancer and tuberculosis.