The aim of this work is to carry out identification of some phytoconstituents of Morus alba which are responsible for antidiabetic activity and their complications as well as antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds and flavonoidal compounds were estimated in the various extracts (chloroform, petroleum ether, ethanol and water). Phenolic compounds are determined by using a linear standard curve of gallic acid (y = 0.0025x+ 0.0334, R2 =0.9997) and found to be higher in water extract (67.32±0.50 mg/g GAE) in comparison to other extracts. Flavonoidal compounds estimated through a linear standard curve of quercetin (y=0.004x+ 0.0431, R2 =0.9985) and found to be higher in water extract (55.37±0.05 mg/g QE) than other extracts. HPLC was used for the determination of quantities of phytoconstituents present in M. alba. Chromatogram of HPLC shows the presence of quercetin (1.30 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (1.80 mg/g), rutin (1.20 mg/g), isoquercetin (0.35 mg/g) and kaempferol (0.80 mg/g). In vitro antioxidant activity was increase with increasing their concentration and it was found maximum in water extract than other extracts. The IC50 values have been estimated and it was found highest in petroleum ether extract than other extracts. Normal healthy rats treated with hydro-alcoholic leaves extracts; they did not show any harmful effect during 14 days up to dose level 600mg/kg. Metformin improved glucose tolerance up to 14.6% at a dose 100 mg/kg while plant drug 11.38 % at a dose 600 mg/kg. STZ treated rats caused induction of hyperglycemia. The reduction of glucose level 21.9% by metformin at a dose of 100 mg/kg while Morus alba shows 13.2 % at a dose of 600 mg/kg. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic leaves extracts of various dosage shows the reduction in all biochemical parameters, but HDL was increased. The present investigation on the hydro-alcoholic extract of Morus alba leaves shows improvement in glucose tolerance and significant hypoglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic SD male rats by regeneration of β cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin. This result gives opportunity to develop novel oral hypoglycaemic drugs in advance pharmaceutical therapies.
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